Our Technology

Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis

The two-dimensional (2D) class of materials exhibit a wealth of remarkable properties (high surface area, high Young modulus, chemical stability, quantum confinement fluorescence) occurring as a result of their atomic thickness and lateral dimensions. 2D materials include graphene (G), molybdenum disulfide, boron nitride, and the recently discovered MXene. 

Owing to the flexible and robust nature of these 2D nanosheets it is possible to design new 2D based functional materials with superior/new, tuneable properties from their parent 2D. This can be achieved efficiently using our rapid, green synthetic approach, Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis. 

Target 2D materials

Target materials

Advantages of CHFS approach 

Schematic of CHFS reactor  

Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis (CHFS), is a single step process which involves mixing (in a special reactor) a continuous stream of supercritical water (374 °C, 22.1 MPa) with a continuous stream of water-soluble precursor(s) to give rapid synthesis (within seconds) and controlled growth of nanomaterials.


CHFS represents a scalable and highly tuneable medium determined by manipulation of the process parameters, e.g. with T and P, both of which can influence the supersaturation and nucleation.


The CHFS process has many advantages; it does not utilize a long and complex process, nor is it potentially explosive and it limits the use of harmful or toxic reagents, while effectively reducing the reaction time to a few seconds giving namomaterials with defined properties.

The CHFS technology can deliver not only 2D derivatives but a variety of other nanomaterials (homo/hetero metal oxides) with a high degree of control over the composition, shape and size, giving significant enhancement to the aforementioned properties of those currently available.

CHFS delivers  significant positive changes to the cost, performances, scalability and durability of the materials, parameters that enable their use in a diverse spectrum of applications.